Footnotes

  1. Personal communication with Henry Klein and Jason Walker (both OC 60).
  2. Oberlin Review, 12/2/60.
  3. Oberlin Review, 12/16/60.
  4. September 2004 Out magazine.
  5. Eloise Salholz, et al., “The Power and the Pride,” Newsweek, 6/21/93, 54-60. “On a few campuses around the country, straights have found themselves on the defensive. ‘Once in a while you’ll hear a first-year student slightly upset about being called a breeder or something,’ says Robin Russell, a recent graduate of Oberlin College in Ohio, considered to be a gay mecca by many young homosexuals. The annual Lesbutante Ball is a command performance for lesbian couples in their butch and femme finery.”
  6. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996), Introduction.
  7. George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, urban culture, and the making of the gay male world, 1890-1940 (New York: Basic Books, 1994), 2. See also John D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983).
  8. James Oliver Horton, “Black Education at Oberlin College: A Controversial Commitment,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 477-499; 494.
  9. For percentages of African American students at Oberlin until 1940, see W.E. Bigglestone, “Oberlin College and the Negro Student, 1865-1940,” Journal of Negro History, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Jul., 1971), 198. Figures from the 1940s to 1971 are based on rough calculations from the yearly totals that appear in the 1960 Alumni Registrar, figures from the 1960s from Ross Peacock, Director of the Office of Institutional Research, and minority student records from the Records of the Secretary. African Americans did not make up more than four percent of the total student body from 1900 the late 1960s.
  10. Newsweek, Nov. 8 1971, 68. Robert Fuller, Oberlin president from 1970 to 1974 (email to author). In 2004, percentage of African American students at Oberlin was again down to seven percent.
  11. David Halperin, “How to do the History of Male Homosexuality,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 2000 6: 87-123. The four categories are effeminacy, pedastry or “active” sodomy, friendship or male love, and passivity or inversion. Interestingly, he notes that effeminacy has traditionally been a sign of heterosexual excess. These models all “derive from a premodern system that privileges gender over sexuality,” he argues, but continue to exist “alongside of (and despite their flagrant conflict with) a more recent homosexual model derived from a modern system that privileges sexuality over gender.”
  12. Martha Vicinus, “‘They Wonder To Which Sex I Belong’: The Historical Roots of the Modern Lesbian Identity,” Feminist Studies 18:3 (Autumn 1992), 467-497; 470. Overlapping histories of female homosexualities, she writes, include “teenage crushes, romantic friendships, Boston marriages, theatrical cross-dressing, passing women, bulldykes and prostitutes, butches and femmes, and numerous other identifications which may—and may not—include genital sex.”
  13. Joanne Meyerowitz, How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002), 32. They covered “cases of crossgender identification, intersex, homosexuality, and transvestitism, sometimes without distinguishing among them, and they frequently depicted them all as interrelated pathologies in need of a medical cure.”
  14. Chauncey, Gay New York, 13.
  15. Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America’s Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 137.
  16. In this way, they may have shared traits with the often homoerotic Cambridge’s “Apostles,” a secretive society of mostly undergraduates that takes its name from the idea that its members are supposedly the twelve cleverest students at Cambridge. ÝRichard Dellamora, writing about Alfred Tennyson’s social circle in the early 1800’s, observed that their “sense of shared superiority might prompt the view, as it did in a later generation, that members of the Apostles possessed a higher or different morality from that binding ordinary men.” Dellamora, Richard. Masculine Desire: The Sexual Politics of Victorian Aestheticism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990).
  17. Susan Sontag, “Notes on Camp,” 1964. Reprinted in A Susan Sontag Reader (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1982), 105-19.
  18. Oberlin Review, 2/25/69.
  19. James Oliver Horton, “Black Education at Oberlin College: A Controversial Commitment,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 477-499; 481.
  20. Email from Peter Nicholson based on his conversation with Pratt Spelman, 11/13/05.
  21. See William Wright, Harvard’s Secret Court: the Savage 1920 Purge of Campus Homosexuals (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005).
  22. Ronald Hogeland, “Coeducation of the Sexes at Oberlin College: A Study of Social Ideas in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America,” Journal of Social History, 1972 vol:6 iss:2 pg:160 -176; 170.
  23. John Barnard, From Evangelicalism to Progressivism at Oberlin College, 1866-1917 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969), 30.
  24. Between 1837 and 1846, 97.5 percent of Oberlin’s women graduates married, and 65 percent of these married Oberlin men. See Louis Hartson, “Marriage Record of Alumnae for the First Century of a Coeducational College,” The Journal of Heredity, XXXI, (Sept., 1940), 406, from Ginzberg, Lori D. “Women in an Evangelical Community: Oberlin, 1835-1850,” Ohio History 1980 89(1): 78-88.
  25. Oberlin College Archives, Student Papers, Kate Peterson, “Women in 19th Century Oberlin,” 5/11/71.
  26. Carol Lasser and Marlene Merrill (Eds.), Soul Mates: The Oberlin Correspondence of Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown 1846-1850 (Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College, 1983).
  27. Feb. 25th 1849. Ibid.
  28. Oberlin College Archives, 1909 Hi-O-Hi.
  29. Oberlin College Archives, President Fairchild papers, December 9, 1878.
  30. Oberlin College Archives, student records.
  31. John Barnard, From Evangelicalism to Progressivism at Oberlin College, 1866-1917 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969), 24. By the 1870s, many colleges had achieved a relaxation of social rules. According to Barnard, the fact that “a large body of rules minutely regulated all aspects of social relations” at Oberlin invited criticism or ridicule from outsiders.
  32. Ibid., 105.
  33. Ibid., 127.
  34. See John D’Emilio and Estelle Freedman, Intimate matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).
  35. Oberlin Review, 11/5/29.
  36. Oberlin Critic, 3/11/22. The same year, claiming that “intellectual and moral or social freedom go hand in hand,” another student wrote against the “spirit of repression… expressed in our manifold legislation,” especially related to women. The student also noted that “the question of revising the student discipline related to women has of late been under serious discussion.” (Oberlin Critic, 3/4/22).
  37. Publication unknown, Spring 1924. While “in the realm of thought she is supposed to be able to cope with some of the most weighty problems, in her conduct she finds her actions guided by a set of rules which determine every move she makes.”
  38. Oberlin Review, 6/12/26.
  39. Willard Warch, Our First 100 Years: A Brief History of the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music (Oberlin, 1967), 37.
  40. Oberlin College Archives, Frances J. Hosford memorandum, 1920, Bohn Files.
  41. Email from Peter Nicholson based on his conversation with Pratt Spelman, 11/13/05.
  42. See 1936 map at http://www.oberlin.edu/archive/resources/photoguide/maps.html and descriptions of buildings at http://www.oberlin.edu/archive/resources/photoguide/chronindex.html.
  43. Chiron Rising #62, June/July 1994, interview by Jim Kitchen. A colorful character, Spelman later discovered Buddhism, studied organ in Paris in the early 1930s, became a Quaker, and was blacklisted as a pacifist during World War Two.
  44. The words “artistic” and “musical” were in fact euphemisms for any effeminate or homosexual sensibility in U.S. men at the time. Furthermore, popular “musicosexual taxonomies” cultivated among gay musicians have identified organists as among the musicians most likely to be “that way.” See, for instance, Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America’s Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 123. In Ned Rorem’s camp assessment, first articulated in 1948 in an informal conversation with Dr. Alfred Kinsey, male harpists, choir directors, and organists are “all gay.” Given this information, and without drawing any hard conclusions, it may be worth noting that, in 1920, Oberlin’s organ department, in which Spelman enrolled two years later, was recognized as the largest in the world. (Willard Warch, Our First 100 Years, 33.)
  45. Letter from Leslie Spelman to Peter Nicholson, 8/31/96.
  46. Chauncey, Gay New York
  47. Oberlin College Archives, Raymond Stetson Papers, 30/13 Box 1, “Letters and Notes on RHS’s broad interests,” “Summary of Group Thinking on Sex Questions,” 4/12/25.
  48. Oberlin College Archives, General Faculty Minutes, 4/10/33. The bibliography created for a group Stetson was involved with, which may have been constructed by Stetson, included authors such as the homosexual utopian socialist Edward Carpenter, and sexologists Havelock Ellis and Richard von Krafft-Ebing. See also the section on Frederick Artz.
  49. 1903 HI-O-HI, p. 109.
  50. The “pansy craze” was a brief public flirtation with effeminate, campy male performers and female impersonators at nightclubs who incorporated homosexual innuendo into their acts. See Chauncey, Gay New York.
  51. Oberlin Review, 12/5/33.
  52. “Campus Life at Oberlin 1930-1945,” Oberlin Alumni Magazine, Winter 1998, Geoffrey Blodgett (OC 53), http://www.oberlin.edu/alummag/oampast/oam_winter/campuslife.html
  53. Oberlin College Archives, Morrison Phs Ed Sub II, Ser 1, Box 2 p2. “There are some persons who have attempted to defend the homosexual practice,” Morrison wrote, alluding to popular sexologists such as Havelock Ellis. “They seemed to have overlooked the fundamental fact that there can never be a homosexual society, the practice will always be restricted to a fringe of society and for that reason there will always be a conflict for the homosexual.” According to Morrison, “secretive sex acts such as masturbation and homosexuality not only fail to satisfy sex needs but are distinctly harmful to one’s personality and character.”
  54. Oberlin’s sex education program was part of a national “social hygiene” movement that became popular after World War I. In 1924, Oberlin’s general faculty voted, at the suggestion of physical education professor W.R. Morrison, that President King be asked to “appoint a committee” to cooperate with the American Social Hygiene Association, an organization key to producing sex education policy in the early 20th century. See Oberlin College Archives and Jeffrey Moran, Teaching Sex (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), 32.
  55. “Nazis Cleanses Germany,” Oberlin Review, 2/5/35. “What we want to understand is how these [sexual] problems arise,” Morrison wrote in his proposal, “how sex behavior develops; and what causes sex abnormalities and perversions.”
  56. Jeffrey Moran, Teaching Sex (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000).
  57. Oberlin College Archives, Student Publications, Progress ‚ A Magazine of Controversy, 12/15/33.
  58. Progress, 1/12/34. “Should a couple prefer not to see a movie or go walking,” one student wrote, “they are allowed the great pleasure of sitting before a silent radio in an already crowded living room presided over by the eagle eyes of the matron.” (Progress, 1/19/34).
  59. Progress, 12/15/33.
  60. Progress, 12/15/33. See John D’Emilio and Estelle Freedman, Intimate Matters, p. 265, for information about “companiate marriages.”
  61. Oberlin Review, 11/16/34.
  62. Oberlin College Archives, President Wilkins, Box 58, ‘Negroes.’ The Dean’s “strong disapproval” also prevented a bi-racial rooming arrangement, according to the handbill, while the Dean of Women “advised two white girls not to go to Cleveland in the company of a colored girl.”
  63. Oberlin College Archives, McCullough papers.
  64. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996).
  65. Ibid. The phrase, “Everyone knows about them, that place is full of queers,” is attributed to Diehm by Allan Spear.
  66. Ibid., 18.
  67. Allan Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II (New York: Plume, 1991), 257.
  68. Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Campus Life: Undergraduate Cultures from the End of the Eighteenth Century to the Present (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 185.
  69. Oberlin College Archives, 1960 Alumni Registrar.
  70. Figures are based on rough calculations from the yearly totals that appear in the 1960 Alumni Registrar, figures from the 1960s from Ross Peacock, Director of the Office of Institutional Research, and minority student records from the Records of the Secretary.
  71. “Honoring those who served in the armed forces,” Waves, 6/99.
  72. “A Pioneer in the Pulpit,” The Advocate, 12/4/90.
  73. Steven Law, The Story of Bob. (not yet published)
  74. Robert Wood, Christ and the Homosexual (New York: Vantage Press, Inc., 1960), 38-40.
  75. Challener would later become a concert pianist before dying of AIDS related complications in 1984, according to Wood.
  76. http://www.sodomylaws.org/sensibilities/ohio.htm
  77. Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire, 6.
  78. Emitt Vicar, Interview with author.
  79. John Kelsey, “Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties,” in Karla Jay and Allen Young (Eds.), Lavender Culture (New York: New York University Press, 1994), 147. Originally published in 1978.
  80. Emitt Vicar, Interview with author.
  81. Oberlin College Archives, Physical Education files, “Questions from men.”
  82. Allan Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II (New York: Plume, 1991).
  83. Oberlin College Archives, Morrison Phs Ed Sub II, Ser 1, Box 2. Morrison’s writing reflects the beliefs of social hygiene sex educators of the period, who, according to historian Jeffrey Moran, “rested their hopes on the insight that the human sexual instinct, unlike the animal’s natural urges, was profoundly modifiable.”
  84. Luke Warmer email to author, 8/10/2000
  85. Historian David Halperin argues that different “models of male sexual and gender deviance”—such as the “inversion” model of homosexuality which privileges gender identity over the sex of a sexual partner—have existed “alongside of (and despite their flagrant conflict with) a more recent homosexual model derived from a modern system that privileges sexuality over gender.” (David Halperin, “How to do the History of Male Homosexuality,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 2000 6: 87-123).
  86. A.C. Kinsey, W.B. Pomeroy, C.E. Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1948), 623. From Halperin, “How to do the History of Male Homosexuality,” 111.
  87. Journal entry dated July 23 1948, property of Luke Warmer.
  88. Thanks to Martin Meeker for making this point.
  89. Frederick Artz, The Mind of the Middle Ages, AD 200-1500: An Historical Survey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953, 1980).
  90. Professor Geoffrey Blodgett, “Historian’s Notebook: Artz House,” Oberlin Alumni Magazine, 11/8/79.
  91. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996),17.
  92. Frederick Artz, “Memories of Childhood and Youth 1894-1924” (Oberlin, 1964), 44 pp.
  93. Oberlin College Archives website.
  94. George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, urban culture, and the making of the gay male world, 1890-1940 (New York: Basic Books, 1994), 101 and 106.
  95. Chauncey, Gay New York, 101.
  96. Ibid., 106.
  97. Oberlin Review, 6/11/66.
  98. Oral histories with Larry Palmer (OC 60) and Anonymous. The Conservatory professor was Robert Melcher. This tale is likely apocryphal, as Artz would surely have known the difference between the “virgin birth” (that Mary remained a Virgin when impregnated) and the “immaculate conception” (that Mary was born without Original Sin). The fact that there were various forms of this story circulating—in one version of the story Artz is addressing a class and looking out of a window in Peters, in another he is with a friend in Tappan Square—is another reason to doubt it.
  99. One of Artz’s favorite sayings, “pronounced with twinkling eyes” while tending to daffodils in his garden was, “There are fairies at my bottom in the garden,” according to a German professor who taught at Oberlin in the late 1950s. This, of course, adding a “gay” touch to an already “gay” song: Beatrice Lillie’s “There are Fairies at the Bottom of My Garden.”
  100. Oberlin News Tribune, 12/7/50.
  101. Oberlin College Archives, General Faculty Minutes, 4/10/33. The Committee’s circa 1930’s conclusion reflects how little they accomplished: “Society as a whole will not permit free speech. Oberlin still represents conservative opinion. The cause will be lost by premature action on the part of too progressive a group, especially one self-constituted… the conclusion admits the Problem, existing in society, and at the same time admits the Friday-Night Group’s utter defeat in attempting to solve it.”
  102. Oberlin News Tribune, 12/7/50.
  103. Artz, Memories of Childhood and Youth, 44.
  104. http://www.oberlin.edu/archive/holdings/finding/RG30/SG175/scope.html. The Oberlin College Archives website tell us only that the two “shared a passion for the local Cosmos club.”
  105. Chauncey, Gay New York, 106.
  106. Oberlin College Archives, 30/175 1985/8 Box 4, Series II Correspondence, Artz papers.
  107. Anonymous oral history with the author.
  108. Oberlin College Archives
  109. “Frederick B. Artz, 88, retired professor, dies,” publication unknown, 7/21/83.
  110. See Nan Alamilla Boyd, Wide Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003) and Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic Books, 1988).
  111. Oberlin College Archives, Admissions Committee minutes, Feb 3, 1950.
  112. Thomas would later teach one of the first gay political courses in the nation [https://library.ucsc.edu/reg-hist/oir.exhibit/david_thomas], at UC Santa Cruz. He does recall a Conservatory student who lived off-campus in a relationship with another male student: one indication that not all gay students isolated themselves from one another.
  113. Email to author, 4/30/00. “I think I was fully heterosexual for many years, although I don’t know if that would have been the case if I had known about homosexuality. I might have gone either way, and was always a tomboyish sort. I was drawn into the feminist movement in the early ’70s, was in women’s groups, volunteered at a Women’s shelter, etc., got divorced and after that associated mainly with women.”
  114. Hutchins, L. & Ka’ahumanu, L (eds), Bi Any Other Name: Bisexual people speak out (Boston: Alyson, 1991) and Robyn Ochs and Sarah E. Rowley (eds.), Getting Bi: Voices of Bisexuals Around the World (Cambridge: Bisexual Resource Center, 2005).
  115. “I think because I was already into music and color and the senses I soon disregarded the Episcopalian upbringing I was given, and paid no attention to religion or for that matter convention,” he said. “That didn’t, however, make me bold in being open about my [sexual] preferences since it was anathema to the other boys.”
  116. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996). This phrase is attributed to Diehm by Allan Spear.
  117. Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America’s Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 100.
  118. Ibid., 137.
  119. Email to author, 24 Jul 2004.
  120. Oberlin Review, 9/25/59.
  121. The student lived with his boyfriend on campus; they are still a couple. This student gave Stiefel the courage to tell his best friend about his homosexuality, a very significant step at the time.
  122. Oberlin College Archives, Student Papers.
  123. Susan Sontag, “Notes on Camp,” 1964. Reprinted in A Susan Sontag Reader (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1982), 105-19.
  124. Oberlin College Archives website.
  125. According to the Oberlin College Archives website, McLaughlin died after a long battle with leukemia in West Germany on May 13, 1985 and was survived by William Baltes, a “close friend” who shared a house in Germany with McLaughlin for over twenty years.
  126. Oberlin College Archives, Dick Candee scrapbook, Oberlin Review article by Geoff Ward.
  127. Susan Sontag, “Notes on Camp,” 1964. Reprinted in A Susan Sontag Reader (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1982), 105-19.
  128. Nat Brandt, The Town That Started the Civil War (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990).
  129. Oberlin Review, 2/24/59. In 1964 nearly half the student body participated in the “Freedom Fast,” in which the dining company donated unused meal money to the drive. Oberlin Review, 2/21/64, “1200 Students Sign Up to Fast for Civil Rights,” from Alicia D’Addario, “In Search of Community: The Oberlin Student Movement, 1961-1968.”[http://www.oberlin.edu/external/EOG/DAddarioHonors/DAddarioHonors-Title.htm]
  130. Email to the author, 7/29/04.
  131. John Howard, Men Like That: A Southern Queer History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 143.
  132. James Oliver Horton, “Black Education at Oberlin College: A Controversial Commitment,” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 477-499; 496.
  133. Delia Pitts, “Faculty Approves Black Program,” Oberlin Review, 12/6/68, from Alicia D’Addario, “In Search of Community…”
  134. Oberlin College Archives, Glover Parham papers.
  135. Oberlin Review, 12/2/60. The students were likely referring to the Wolfenden Report (1957) and consequent legalization of homosexuality in England.
  136. Oberlin Review, 12/16/60. The exchange also illustrates the diversity of opinion about homosexuality on campus: the very liberal attitude that homosexuals should be “pitied rather than looked down upon;” the students’ radical belief that homosexuality should be “accepted as a natural social phenomenon;” and Turner’s faith in the “Christian morality upon which [Oberlin was] founded,” which ostensibly considered homosexuality to be “immoral.”
  137. Oberlin College Archives, Student Papers, Gretchen Sampson, “The Decade the Rules Changed: Social Rules at Oberlin College, 1960—1970.”
  138. Oberlin Review, 2/13/59. The student suggested “certain architectural changes, such as benches under trees, reopening and patrolling against prowlers at the Arb, and more secluded lounges.” This suggestion may have eventually been taken up in the early sixties by the administration as they set up “semi-private quarters” where, as George Langeler, then chairman of the Joint Men’s and Women’s Boards, put it, “a student could study in privacy and, perhaps, kiss a girl.” According to the Chronicle, “Langeler said the board realizes the need for facilities where students can find ‘privacy without isolation,’ but does not consider Saturday night open houses, or approving student cars the solution to the problem.” (Oberlin College Archives, Carr Presidential Files, “Controversial Issues.”) What the paper dubbed Oberlin’s ” kiss-study- kiss plan” led to the resignation of one of an assistant Conservatory professor.
  139. Oberlin College Archives, President Carr Papers, 2/9/2 Box 20, V Student Life, 8 Subject Files, Sex Education. “Sex Mores in Transition,” by Graham B. Blane, JR., M.D. Harvard University Health Services: (1963).
  140. By the early 1960s, national courts largely abandoned in loco parentis in favor of contract law for ruling on disputes between students and educational institutions, especially after the landmark Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education decision in 1961. Partly in reaction to free speech movements, other changes came as courts recognized that students at public colleges and universities were entitled to First and Fourth Amendment rights.
  141. Oberlin College Archives, Carr Presidential Files, 1962/3 President’s Report, 19.
  142. Oberlin Review, 10/17/63.
  143. Interview with Anonymous.
  144. Popular “musicosexual taxonomies” cultivated among gay musicians have identified organists as among the musicians most likely to be “that way.” See, for instance, Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America’s Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 123. In Ned Rorem’s camp assessment, first articulated in 1948 in an informal conversation with Dr. Alfred Kinsey, male harpists, choir directors, and organists are “all gay.”
  145. Oberlin College Archives, Student Papers, Naomi McClure Griffiths, “The Emergence of Birth Control at Oberlin College.”
  146. These included a sit-in at Finney Chapel in May 1966 in response to Oberlin’s administering of the student draft deferment test, and another in the lobby of Wilder Hall in February 1967, surrounding three Air Force recruiters.
  147. Alicia D’Addario, “In Search of Community: The Oberlin Student Movement, 1961-1968.” [http://www.oberlin.edu/external/EOG/DAddarioHonors/DAddarioHonors-Title.htm]
  148. Oberlin College Archives, Carr Presidential Files, “Controversial Issues.” According to a senate survey, 86% of the students approved ending upperclassmen curfews. The same year, in classic queen fashion, Professor Frederick Artz spoke on the decline of morals and manners among college youth at the annual Alumni Luncheon.
  149. That year, according to the Oberlin Review, Oberlin received a “C-” from Playboy magazine for its “general posture toward social rules.” Bob Jones University was the only institution ranked below the Yeoman, the Review reported, “a place where southern belles turn out the lights at 9:00 p.m. and wear their dresses above the shoelaces.” Oberlin Review, “One hundred years of sex,” 4/3/74.
  150. “Where to Live?” Oberlin Review, 9/19/ 67, 18, from Alicia D’Addario, “In Search of Community…”
  151. Oberlin College Archives, “Student Radicals” File, 5/11/67.
  152. Thanks to Terence Kissack for this comment.
  153. Oberlin College Archives, Carr Presidential Files, “Controversial Issues,” the Chronicle, date unknown.
  154. Oberlin College Archives, Oct 24 1969 Meeting of the Committee on Admissions and Relations to Secondary Schools.
  155. Jarvis saw Marlon Butts starting his sophomore year, at Psychological Services. “First we tried the straight angle, and then realized that wasn’t working,” he recalled. They then switched over to “acceptance of who I was.” The swimming team also became the “healthy family” he had never experienced at home.
  156. Oberlin Review, 2/25/69. Two months later, the committee finished a review of the controversy, stating that they had “found no evidence of discrimination in admissions on the basis of political activism or views, religious background, or masculinity.” They promised a “new, more explicit, interview form” to rectify the situation (Oberlin Review, 5/30/69).
  157. Oberlin Review, 2/28/69.
  158. “Admissions: More than meets the Eye,” Oberlin Review, 3/4/69. “Oberlin produces a very important product, a commodity that is essential to the functioning of a society which is based upon class stratification. This product is the Oberlin graduate, neatly channeled to fit into the middle positions of society, and to accept his role in the class system without questionÖIndividualism is groovey and is cultivated in a liberal institution ‚ but only to a pointÖIt is dysfunctional to admit students who are so ‘far out’ that they might seriously question the entire basis of their training…
  159. “Co-ed Dorms: An intimate revolution on campus,” Life Magazine, 11/20/70.
  160. Email to the author, 9/4/05.
  161. Oberlin College Archives, Student Papers, Deborah I. Cane, “The Birth of a ‘Gay Mecca’: A Queer History of Oberlin College 1954—1983,” p 13.
  162. John Loughery, The Other Side of Silence (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998), 22.
  163. The 1971 Lorain Journal article “Homosexuals Are Challenging Society” was the impetus for a file on gay students in the Dean’s office. The founder of the Club Baths, a “national leader of the homophile movement,” is quoted as saying that “There are many homosexuals in Lorain County. Many of my customers are from Lorain and Elyria. Many Oberlin College students are gay and come to Cleveland for contacts.”
  164. John Thompson, email to the author, 4/26/00
  165. Email to the author, 7/29/04.
  166. He also remembered a story about a woman who arrived as a freshman voice major who was told that there were a large number of lesbians in the Conservatory. “During her first lesson with her female voice coach, she was told to lie on her back on the floor while the coach put her foot on her abdomen and told her to breathe,” Zeman recalled. “Obviously she was scared out of her wits thinking she was about to be raped.” Email to the author, 10/8/99
  167. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996).
  168. Nadine Hubbs, The Queer Composition of America’s Sound: Gay Modernists, American Music, and National Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 177.
  169. Oberlin Alumni Magazine, February 1966.
  170. The triad was remarked on by a number of narrators, including former President Robert Fuller. Thompson and others’ iconoclastic views were not reflected in his annual reports to the administration. His 1964/65 report listed homosexuality under “Sexual Deviation,” a subset of the “Sociopathic” category from the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It was not until 1974/75, reflecting the removal of homosexuality from the list of mental illnesses in the third (1974) edition of the DSM, that the new category, “Homosexual Concerns” was created in Thompson’s reports, along with “boyfriend/girlfriend problems, “loneliness,” and “identity conflicts.” (Oberlin College Archives, Psych Services Acc 12/ Box 1.) In the 1974/75 report, Thompson noted that Psychological Services was working with the recently founded gay student group, “doing what we can to better educate the community in a new understanding of homosexuality.” As Thompson recalled in an interview, “I was reared in such a fashion that I had learned to think for myself. What society said wasn’t necessarily something I accepted. I didn’t rebel against it, I didn’t fight it, but I didn’t take it down whole hog either… That didn’t mean that I threw it out.”
  171. John D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States 1940-1970 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 235.
  172. Oberlin College Archives, Psych Services Acc 12/ Box 1, 1974/75.
  173. Brett Beemyn, “The Silence Is Broken: A History of the First Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Student Groups,” Journal of the History of Sexuality (2003, Vol 12; Part 2), 205-223. Columbia chartered the nation’s first gay student group in 1967 and Cornell the second, in 1968. Students in these groups used pseudonyms and did not engage in overt campus political activity.
  174. Donn Teal, The Gay Militants (New York: Stein & Day, 1971), 204, 215, 216.
  175. Oberlin Review, 3/19/71.
  176. Oberlin Review, 4/16/71. According to his obituary, Adams later “sang on Broadway, the White House, and sang the parts of Porgy and Crown in ‘Porgy and Bess’ at Radio City Music Hall.” He died in 1988 “after a long illness.” (Oberlin College Archives)
  177. Oberlin College Archives, “Gay Liberation” file, Starr papers, Series 17, Box 3.
  178. By October 1970, the Outlook Reporter reports that the Gymnasium “has been named for Jesse Philips.”
  179. The survey was by the National Gay Student Center, a project of the U.S. National Student Association. From GLBT Historical Society Archives, Ephemera, National Gay Student Center, “changes in Gay student rights” newsletter, date unknown.
  180. Donn Teal, The Gay Militants (New York: Stein & Day, 1971), 204, 215, 216.
  181. Brett Beemyn, “The Silence Is Broken.”
  182. Oberlin Review, 10/1/71 [from http://www.sodomylaws.org/sensibilities/ohio.htm: Ohio was one of the earlier states to enact a psychopathic offender law and, although the first such law was vague as to its applicability to sodomy, a court interpretation held that any act of sodomy could fall under its scope. Ohio never enacted a sterilization law, although there were numerous attempts. Undaunted by a lack of legal authority, Ohio prison officials undertook sterilization of sex criminals before their release from prison, a policy that lasted until it was publicized and became the recipient of much public criticism.]
  183. Oberlin Review, 9/17/71.
  184. The Oberlin community was relatively silent about these developments, though there were some negative responses. One student responded with a parody article entitled “Moving out of the doghouse: Bestiality Liberation” (Oberlin Review, 10/12/71). Another student called gay liberation “a reflection of a general cultural outlook that declares truth and morality to be meaningless or non-existent.” He disagreed, claiming that “only God has the authority to declare a given act right or wrong,” and that “GodÖhas said that homosexuality is wrong” (Oberlin Review, 9/24/71).
  185. Oberlin College Archives, “Gay Liberation” file, Starr papers, Series 17, Box 3.
  186. Oberlin Review, Karl Spahn, “Come Out, Come Out, Wherever you are!,” 12/3/71.
  187. Email to the author, Christa Rakich, 11/19/05. She also recalled that Professor Melcher offered her “books on gay subjects” when he discovered she was chairing the Gay Union.
  188. Oberlin Review, 10/12/71.
  189. Email to the author, 5/1/00.
  190. Oberlin Review, 5/15/73. “Oberlin homophobia is worse than at Ohio State. It’s a hell of a lot easier to deal with honest bigots than with a bunch of patronizing liberals.” “On Male Lesbianism: If men in general (and male egos in particular) become more repulsive, I swear I’ll start sleeping with women, which would make me not straight, but a male radical lesbian.”
  191. Email to the author, 4/18/00
  192. Esther Newton, Cherry Grove, Fire Island: Sixty Years in America’s First Gay and Lesbian Town (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 84-85.
  193. From a 3/30/06 email to the author: “Spanish House was a very attractive dorm for Conservatory students. So in fact there was a large contingent of gay men coexisting with an increasing number of American Hispanics in addition to those interested in the language and the students from Latin American countries who tended to be from somewhat to very affluent backgrounds. So indeed the sexual tensions in the house were quite complex, made more so by the cultural backgrounds of a growing population of Hispanic students burdened as they were by their homophobic catholic/cultural backgrounds. To make the connection even more interesting, Spanish House dining hall had a vocal and highly visible contingent at lunch and dinner which was Conservatory based, many of whom were known gay members of the Conservatory community.”
  194. She also founded the Trans Support Group in Asheville, N.C. in 1986, and is currently an organizer with Southern Comfort, a national transgender political conference.
  195. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996), 8.
  196. Ibid., 51.
  197. Ibid., 62
  198. Email to the author, 7/24/04.
  199. Oberlin College Archives, Student Publications, “Review Rip- Off,” 11/14/72.
  200. Oberlin Review, 3/9/71.
  201. Into the Pink, 58
  202. Oberlin Review, 2/26/99.
  203. “Oberlin College and the Negro Student, 1865-1940,” W.E. Bigglestone, The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Jul., 1971), 198-219.
  204. Figures from the 1940s to 1971 are based on rough calculations from the yearly totals that appear in the 1960 Alumni Registrar, figures from the 1960s from Ross Peacock, Director of the Office of Institutional Research, and minority student records from the Records of the Secretary.
  205. Newsweek, 11/8/71, 68. When Robert Fuller began his presidency in 1970, “there was already student lobbying to drastically increase the percent of blacks,” he recalled. Kiyoshi Ikeda, a Japanese American professor of sociology and head of the Committee on Admissions, was also a major player. “He and I in cahoots worked out, on a napkin in the snack bar, how to do this and how to pay for it,” Fuller recalled. “[Ikeda] had been working on it before I got there, and suddenly he had the support of a key administrator.” Their plan was put to the General Faculty vote in 1971.
  206. Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Campus Life: Undergraduate Cultures from the End of the Eighteenth Century to the Present (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 241.
  207. Oberlin College Alumni Office, Into the Pink: An Oral History of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students at Oberlin College from 1937 to 1991 (Oberlin College, Ohio, 1996), 66-68.
  208. Into the Pink. I was not able to find a copy of this letter in the Review.
  209. Into the Pink, 69-70.
  210. Oberlin Review, 5/15/73.
  211. In a 1998 Cleveland Plain Dealer story, physics professor John Scofield said of the SMBD Club, “If this kind of thing continues, I think it will make it more and more difficult to recruit mainstream American kids.” The Plain Dealer, 9/11/98.
  212. “Radical Activist U: Oberlin College,” Jean Pearce FrontPage Magazine 11/5/03.